Sociology & Social Sciences in Italian
Sociology in Italian is widely studied. Sociologists include Aris Accornero, Francesco Carmignani, Sabino Acquaviva, Enzo Pace, Alberoni, and Giandomenico Amendola. This article will discuss Humanistic sociology, the influence of philosophy, and interdisciplinary approaches to societal issues. For further reading, we recommend the book "Society & Social Sciences in Italian: An Introduction" by Antonio Tosi.
The social structure of Italy and the rise of a positive attitude towards it were largely determined by the sociological positivism of the late nineteenth century. This philosophy is largely attributed to the rise of Italian city states, especially the Renaissance, which brought a new generation of intellectuals to prominence. Unlike Gramsci, who saw Italian intellectuals as traditional intellectuals, positivism reaffirmed the position of the traditional intellectuals.
Biological positivism based on phrenology and physiognomy promoted the idea that crime is an inevitable outcome of nature, not a result of culture. It was further developed by Enrico Ferri, a member of the criminal sociology school. He believed that crime is the result of a combination of physiological genes and social factors. These factors, along with the socioeconomic conditions, are responsible for the increase in crime and other forms of disorder.
As a result, positivists linked positive social structures to the intelligentsia, arguing that the relationship between knowledge and production is a fundamental feature of the modern economy. Entrepreneurs would incorporate knowledge into their production processes, and a new kind of intellectual must emerge as a result. However, this new type of intellectual is a complex beast, and it will take some time before all the various components of the positivism can be traced to the roots of society.
However, the positive approach to social life is not always as attractive as it might seem. Sociologists in general acknowledge that society is not a simple system, and therefore do not necessarily respond to this theory. They believe that we must adapt scientific methods in order to understand the various social structures of societies, and this is why positivism is not universally adopted. It does not address the problems of individual behavior, and instead, it seeks to develop a better society.
During the 1950s, humanistic sociology in Italy was largely driven by political science and economics. The dominant themes concerned legitimacy, the explanation of leadership, and the order of political structures. Many economists had a socialist orientation, and their studies focused on macro-level issues. While Italian sociologists largely drew their theories from the United States, they also studied Italy's society from a humanistic perspective.
Sociology in Italy has varied from other countries in terms of dated births, origins, and training. Sociological research in Italy has been more focused in universities and academic institutions since the 1960s. The re-consolidation of sociology into the university system helped legitimize its scientific nature. In addition, publications of encyclopedias and dictionaries facilitated coordination of sociological interests.
Early Italian sociologists were largely university professors, and their work reflected the ideas of Herbert Spencer and Auguste Comte. They searched for laws in society and believed that this could be explained through a positivist framework. This positivist approach dominated Italian sociology for almost a century, from 1865 until the rise of fascism. It was characterized by naturalistic determinism and evolutionary organicism, and was often used to explain the nature of social reality.
The collection's goal is to understand the processes that generate the pathologies of reason and social life. In particular, it seeks to analyze the social ontogenesis of knowledge and the intellectual and material conditions of knowledge production. It also welcomes empirical studies on diverse social pathologies, theoretical works on modernity, and analyses of populism and alternative knowledge. It also welcomes essays on the evolution of contemporary culture and the role of humanism in Italian society and social life.
Interdisciplinary approach to societal issues
The Italian social sciences have embraced an interdisciplinary approach to societal issues. The country has mandated an interdisciplinary course for students to take, and has made the study of sustainability mandatory in all schools. Such reforms are based on the relationship between interdisciplinarity and sustainability. In addition to fostering interdisciplinary research, the Italian social sciences have implemented several new teaching modules around sustainable development.
Among the many challenges that the social sciences face, one of the major problems is the interdisciplinary approach to framing issues. The study of social issues in an interdisciplinary way helps students understand how different actors frame and implement norms. While independent disciplines often fail to address ethical issues, interdisciplinary approaches take these factors into account. Furthermore, the study of moral philosophy is also facilitated by an interdisciplinary approach to societal issues.
This approach also focuses on the core subjects of the sciences. For example, the study of human behavior in the context of societal issues requires an interdisciplinary approach. Researchers from diverse disciplines can develop and implement new solutions to pressing societal issues. A successful interdisciplinarity approach will incorporate the core disciplines of each discipline. The research will highlight areas of concern and provide an interdisciplinary platform for solving those problems.
An interdisciplinary approach to norm diffusion may be particularly useful in studying how social change is mediated by various actors in a society. For example, a societal issue related to human security may require a combination of sociological, environmental, and legal studies. An interdisciplinary approach can illuminate the complex path of benefit-sharing in different sites. It also allows researchers to identify how different interests affect the diffusion of a norm.
Influence of philosophy
The Roman Catholic Church influenced Italian thought with its interest in the study of human nature and institutions. The development of science and mathematics brought new insights into the social and political realm, and the idea of a social science emerged. The growth of trade and exploration increased the awareness of the human experience, which led to the concept of a self-made society, as opposed to the notion of God-given nature.
In the eighteenth century, the influence of Italian philosophy was boosted, particularly in the north. Though the country was far from the heart of the modern European intellectual tradition, the Italian philosophers were influenced by European thought. The debate over national unity had been ongoing since the time of Machiavelli. In these times, the philosophical debate was political and deeply religious, and Italian philosophers responded by defending Hegelian Idealism and the notion of a "good society."
Influence of philosophy on society and social sciences In Italian culture, the development of modern philosophy has continued throughout the centuries. Italian philosophers have been rooted in a humanist and historical tradition since the Renaissance. The renaissance brought the rediscovery of Greek philosophy in the fifteenth century, but the Counter-Reformation shaped the philosophy of the seventeenth century. The Roman Catholic Church exerted a strict control over society during this period.
The development of contemporary philosophy is primarily influenced by the neo-Idealists in the early twentieth century. Some notable examples of this movement include Giuseppe Peano, who invented a system of Idealism that placed the subject above positivism. Gentile believed that all of our senses of the world are ideas in the mind and that even the analogies between the functions of the body and the brain were consistent creations of the mind.
Influence of naturalistic-determinist presuppositions
Schutz's influence on the social sciences and the philosophy of science is well documented. He criticized the positivistic approach of the Schlick Circle, identifying evidence with sensory observable data. He praised Santayana for his insights into the enslaving power of technology and his efforts to ground political and social activity on philosophical anthropology. However, he also disagreed with Santayana's rejection of the idea that human beings are primarily based on physical necessity. In fact, he was in direct opposition to the idea that human beings are essentially material entities that are determined by nature and cannot be predicted.