Sociology & Social Sciences in German
This article introduces you to the discipline of Sociology. In this semi-closed system, we'll examine the network of relationships among people. Then, we'll explore the meaning of Sociology in German. And finally, we'll explore how Sociology has been translated into German. We'll begin with the concept of society as a network of relationships. In the end, you'll be able to use the word "society" to refer to the various aspects of society.
If you are interested in learning Sociology in German, the following tips can help you get started. A general higher education entrance qualification, good German language skills, and a keen interest in social phenomena are required. Some of the required skills are knowledge of politics, history, and current affairs. A strong interest in social studies and politics is also desirable. Having good language skills is helpful, as it eases the start of your studies. Sociology is a subject that involves careful handling of statistics and data. Good mathematical and statistical skills are essential, as well.
The 1920s brought partisanship in German intellectual life. Marxism and Hegelian ideas clashed in German society. Left Hegelians tended to be more extreme than right, and the Kantian tradition was a distant second. While the Kantian tradition was relatively weak in the humanities, left Hegelian ideas dominated German sociology. The political outlook of these sociologists was also divided. But in the end, Marxism emerged as the dominant force.
The rise of the student protest movement in Germany and the rise of alternative culture in the United States led to the development of different forms of protest. As a result, protest movements began claiming Sociology. Meanwhile, the "bourgeois" sociology was denounced as the "normal science" of the day. The demands of the protest movements forced sociologists to react to the hottest topics of the day. Hence, many newly appointed professors caved to these demands and contributed to an erroneous public impression.
A German department of sociology was first established in 1919 at Goethe University, Frankfurt, under the auspices of consul Karl Kotzenberg. Franz Oppenheim, a liberal socialist and pioneer of Rhenish capitalism, held the chair until 1929. Another influential figure in German sociology was Karl Mannheim, who was a professor at the University of Heidelberg. He helped establish the first degree program in sociology in German-speaking countries.
The German Encyclopedia's article on Sociology in Germany has not been revised for this edition. Nevertheless, it maintains the philosophical orientation of the German Sociology, with a strong emphasis on epistemological reflection and intuitive oneness with the explanandum. A notable example of this is the article by Raymond Aron, who was studying sociology under the Nazi regime. There, he noted, "the German Sociology section is a good resource for those who are interested in learning more about the field.
Sociology as a discipline
In the early years of the twentieth century, Sociology was largely a male-dominated field. Women, however, began to become increasingly active in the discipline. In fact, the nineteenth century saw the first female sociologists, including Harriet Martineau, Catherine Macauley, Mary Wollstonecraft, Flora Tristan, and Beatrice Webb. Their early work helped to promote a rigorous and methodological approach to the study of society.
Georg Simmel, the founding father of modern sociology, was a Jew in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century, and was prevented from attaining the proper position of professor because of anti-Semitism. Simmel, however, published numerous books and was appointed a Privatdozent at the University of Berlin in 1881, despite his lack of academic status or student following.
Initially, sociology emphasized the need to understand the causes and consequences of social change, using the same methodological methods used in natural science. This approach was problematic because it ignored human nature as a natural entity, and instead sought to identify the causes of human behavior. This meant that the study of social phenomena was an exercise in observation rather than interpretation. A positive or negative outcome of an event could not be predicted with any certainty.
The ancient Greeks had provided the basic concepts of sociology, such as individualism and the interaction between individuals and society. They also distinguished between nomos, and considered nomos as human conventions. They also described the variations between different societies in the Mediterranean. The Greeks believed that the human social life was not the product of nature, but rather of the human mind. This perspective led to a wide variety of sociological theories, including the study of suicide.
Critical and interpretive sociology are often criticized. The latter rejects the concept of value-free social science. Sociologists who follow this philosophy do not become moralists, and their study of society focuses on the social factors that contribute to human well-being. Rather than interpreting society through a subjective perspective, critical sociologists use objective and empirical knowledge to assess the factors that affect the quality of life in the modern world.
Sociology as a semi-closed system
As a scientific field, sociology is often more open to outsiders than other disciplines. For example, sociology in Germany has produced former historian Andreas Walther, who wrote a book on the role of religion in society. But it's not just the historical perspective that attracts outsiders to sociology. A more general question is how sociology fits into the field of historical studies.
In Weimar Germany, sociology was already in existence. However, many Nazis continued to work as sociologists after the war. Sociology departments in Cologne and Munster sprang up during the Nazi years, and many of these scholars remained there for the rest of their careers. They were able to make a name for themselves in their fields, despite the war. Their work influenced the field and shaped the future of German sociology.
After the war, a number of historians, including Alfred von Martin and Hans Freyer, took sociology seriously, publishing books like A Short History of Sociology in the late 1940s. While the term is commonly used for historical sociology, it's actually a term used for the scientific field. For example, a history of sociology can be defined as the study of the history of social groups.
The concept of society developed from the ideas of Marx and Engels. Marx and Engels' concepts of society were based on the analysis of social movements in France. Likewise, Robert von Mohl sought to distinguish between Gesellschaftswissenschaft and Staatswissenschaft. Social processes were already studied by historical and philosophical methods. And this was the basis for social science positivism. But what about the "social question"?
Modern sociology has evolved from the work of the 'founding fathers'. This period was closely linked with bourgeois society, industrialization, and a sense of social and cultural crisis. The "founding fathers" of sociology published classical works and established journals and professional organizations. In the early twentieth century, sociology was an academic discipline in German universities. However, National Socialism brought sociology to a screeching halt. The Nazis had no interest in sociology as a science.
Sociology as a network of relationships between people
Observation of social networks is often described as an exploration of the connections between people. But these connections have more than just a physical nature. For example, social networks can be characterized by the things that people do for one another, such as financial or emotional help. The study of relationships can also provide insights into the nature of individual behaviors, such as alcohol consumption or weight gain. In the following sections, we will explore some of the key features of social networks.
Social connections are fundamental to society. For social scientists, understanding these networks is crucial to developing policy interventions. Understanding the networks in which individuals are involved can help them determine which health policies and interventions are most effective. Social scientists have identified certain groups that are most at risk for a wide range of illnesses, including cardiovascular disease. They have also identified a link between social isolation and high health risks. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for this link remain elusive.
Studies have shown that social relationships affect our mental, physical, and reproductive health. In addition to health behaviors, social relationships affect mortality risk. Sociologists have been central in establishing this link and providing explanations. By identifying social determinants of health, sociologists can suggest policy solutions that will help improve the health of populations. Given the projected trends in population growth, this knowledge is essential for policymakers. So, we should be working toward addressing the causes of the health disparity and developing policy solutions to combat this issue.
In sociology, the network concept has become common. Social networks are networks of individuals and groups connected through meaningful social relations. These connections may involve neighbors, family members, and friends. These ties can last for years or a lifetime. In other words, they are the foundation of society. And the network concept has been used in the field of information technology. Even the World Wide Web is a network of connected computers.