Sciences & Technology in German
This article discusses Sciences & Technology in German. You'll learn about the Nobel Prizes and how science has affected society. You'll also discover what German scientists have accomplished. And you'll learn about important research institutions. But you should not expect a quick-fix overview of science in Germany. Rather, you'll learn about the development of German technology and scientific discoveries. It's important to understand how these advances are being made in German society.
Science and technology in Germany
German companies are benefiting from the growing number of startups in the sciences and technology sector. The German Economic Affairs Ministry has recently launched the Federal Agency for Disruptive Innovation to help transform breakthrough innovations into cutting-edge products and jobs. The agency is pro-risk and agile and will run innovation competitions and provide low-interest loans to companies that develop cutting-edge products and services. New findings in scientific research must be translated into marketable products as soon as possible.
The country has produced more Nobel Prize-winning scientists than any other nation for most of the 20th century. Scientists from Germany have produced renowned researchers in a variety of fields. Science and technology in Germany is a major source of high-quality products that meet or surpass international standards. German scientists and researchers have dedicated decades to developing these products. The results speak for themselves. In addition to its scientific prowess, German companies are making the world a better place to live.
During the last century, the reunification of East and West Germany created great opportunities for the population, but also placed great strain on the nation's science and technology infrastructure. Still, Germany has maintained a high-quality science and technology education system and vocational training in various fields. By the end of the twentieth century, 140,000 science and technology students graduated from German universities. The current policy aims to foster economic competitiveness and protect the health of the citizens.
Science and technology in Germany have a long tradition dating back to the formation of the modern state. Some of the oldest universities in the world were founded in Germany. Their founding principles were law, philosophy, and theology. Their scientific literature is important in the development of science worldwide. The modern German state has a strong commitment to science, as the self-proclaimed "nation of poets and thinkers," lays claim to being the home of many great scientists.
German scientists also took initiative in many fields. Wilhelm Fischer, the winner of the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1902, became one of the most influential academic scientists in the new system. His chemical work encouraged close collaboration with medical research and the pharmaceutical industry before the turn of the century. Fischer acted as an important figure in science management throughout his career. He founded the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft in 1911, the most influential research organization of the Wilhelmine era.
The new German government has announced its plans for research and higher education, including a national technology transfer agency. It also announced plans to increase support for early career researchers and increase job security for scientists. These promises were warmly welcomed by research leaders and scientists. Meanwhile, a new agency for transfers and innovation, called the German Agency for Transfer and Innovation (DATI), will be set up to promote innovative research and spin-offs. In the coming years, the German government plans to set up more permanent tenure-track jobs and more research funding for scientists and entrepreneurs.
The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded to Otto Hahn, who discovered transuranics in 1938. Their discovery was the unintended result of a joint research project, in which Hahn and his colleague, Lise Meitner, were studying radioactive decay and the generation of transuranics through bombarding uranium atomic nuclei with neutrons. Meitner fled Nazi Germany before the discovery, but it was her work that provided the physical explanation for the chemical measurements made by Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. The Nobel Prize for Hahn was awarded to him in 1956.
The double win for Ertl and Grunberg is a significant development for German science and technology. Germany has had many Nobel laureates, with twenty-four of these in physics and twenty-four in chemistry. Einstein is the most famous of the German Nobel laureates, receiving the prize in 1921 for his contributions to theoretical physics and for discovering the law of photoelectric effect.
The United States and the United Kingdom have the most Nobel Prize winners, with almost four hundred. Germany and the United Kingdom each have over a hundred, but some of the awards are shared by several countries. In addition to individuals, the Norwegian Nobel committee awards a prize to an institution or organization for a specific cause. A co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, Maria Ressa, was born in the Philippines but raised in the U.S., and has since worked there as a university professor and journalist. Her award was also added to the United States' and Philippine totals.
The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded to researchers who have made significant contributions to the understanding of complex physical systems. Klaus Hasselmann and Syukuro Manabe are jointly awarded half of the prize, while Giorgio Parisi and Reinhard Genzel, the director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, are responsible for the other half of the award. They discovered the interplay of disorder and fluctuation in physical systems.
Aside from a number of scientists, there are several women in German. The first woman to win a Nobel Prize in science, Emilie Duflo, was an economist and a social activist. Her husband, Abhijit Banerjee, was a chemist. They shared the prize in physics. The three women were awarded this prize in the sciences, including a female.
According to Dr Gros, the United States has the highest proportion of Nobel prize winners in physiology and medicine. In the year of the discovery of penicillin, Scottish-born Sir Alexander Fleming won the Nobel Prize. Britain has 98 Nobel prize winners, second to the US with 258. The US holds the highest percentage of Nobel laureates in all categories except literature. This gap has been gradually narrowing for the past few years.
Impact of science on society
The Impact of Science on Society. While science used to be valued as a means to understand the world, today, it is often valued as a means to improve society. Social psychologists are involved in two types of organizations: ones whose aim is to get something done and those whose purpose is to prevent something from happening. Think about the post office, for instance. People would not object to a letter being carried; however, if we wanted to prevent fires, we wouldn't have a fire brigade.
Another impact of science on society is the decrease in the general level of lawlessness. If you read an eighteenth-century novel, it is easy to imagine dark streets, footpads, high waymen, and a brutal criminal law. This would never have been possible without the impact of science on society. In fact, crime rates have fallen over the last century, and the average person in the US and the rest of the world is much safer than they were even a century ago.
The telegraph also changed the way that large organizations operate. During Elizabethan times, the English aimed to foster trade with Russia by sending emissaries to the country. The emissaries were given money, goods, and letters, and were then left to make headway. They could only contact their employers at long intervals, which limited their initiative. Using the telegraph for communication made the power of the central government more powerful and lessening the initiative of distant subordinates.
In order to survive, the human population must stabilize throughout the world. This will require government action and the extension of scientific technology. War may become so destructive that overpopulation becomes no longer a threat. Alternatively, it could lead to anarchy and the destruction of scientific technique. A new philosophy will emerge from the new knowledge of how humans interact with the natural world and how they can influence it. The evolution of society began when man discovered how to control the environment.
Today, the role of science will be redefined as the society becomes more fragmented. While it can never provide absolute truths, it does offer methodologically verifiable interpretations and cause reflections in humans and society. While the role of science is important, there is a great responsibility that it has when society is uncertain. It is not easy to decide where the boundaries of science are and how to apply them. But, we'll see in a minute.
The position of the artist and author is precarious. The ability to destroy mountains or turn deserts into lakes has never been so precarious. This principle is cherished by Western European scientists, but it is precarious in times of scientific controversy. In other words, freedom of expression is easier in art and literature than in science. Merit is difficult to measure, and the ability to destroy something is a major danger to society.