Regional Planning in Frankfurt/Main and Ontario
Regional planning is the study of land use activities and the efficient placement of infrastructure. It also deals with the growth of settlements and is related to urban planning. This article focuses on the function of regional planning agencies and examines cases of regional planning in Frankfurt/Main and Ontario. It argues that regional planning should be a core part of city planning.
Case studies of regional planning in Ontario and Frankfurt/Main
The case studies of regional planning in Ontario and Frankfurt/Mein both demonstrate the benefits of community engagement in regional planning. The Frankfurt Green Belt Act was implemented 20 years ago. This act protected open spaces as the city's most precious resource. In addition, the act provided legal protection against development, as the act prevented any reduction in the green belt's allocation. In addition, the act required a special resolution of the city council to remove properties from the green belt. Furthermore, only green space of the same size and quality could be removed.
In the case of Frankfurt/Main, the region is a typical example of a large, urbanized region. It is composed of three federal states and has a population of 5.7 million people. The population growth of the city in recent years has been remarkably strong, with a projected increase of 191,000 people by 2030.
Evolution of regional planning theory
In the second half of the twentieth century, the field of regional planning underwent a period of change. While regional planning was still relatively new, many key ideas of the time were incorporated into contemporary planning. The first epoch focused on territorial integration of natural capital and economic activity within a defined region. Subsequent epochs focused on the departure from received regional planning theory and the resurgence of it in the 1990s.
The second part of the special issue explores the complexities of regional planning. In particular, the issues of governance, policy making, and land use are explored. Furthermore, the underlying motivations for regional planning are examined, as well as the interconnections between formal and informal rules, norms, and discourses. In addition, the special issue considers how regional planning is used in different contexts, including metropolitan scales, governmental scales, and different territorial entities.
Stage theory suggests that regional planning strategies should be designed according to the stage of development of the region. In this way, the economic benefits of agglomeration are maximized. In addition, growth poles and centers are incorporated into regional planning theories. The second stage of regional planning is called takeoff, as external stimuli drive new industrial investments. This takes place when the local social and political order has the capacity to sustain the new investments.
Mainstream theories of regional economic development differ in their assumptions about the balance between agglomerating and dispersing forces, as well as their emphasis on other factors. Some theories place greater emphasis on agglomerating forces than dispersing forces, whereas others emphasize other factors, such as local entrepreneurial capacity and the environment that promotes innovative activities.
While the traditional neoclassical regional development theory emphasizes the accumulation of production factors and technological progress, the agglomeration approach emphasizes the importance of human capital and knowledge as drivers of regional economic development. Both approaches emphasize the spillover effects of technology and knowledge, but they are based on a set of assumptions. Despite their differences, these theories generally predict similar long-term growth rates. And while traditional neoclassical theories are a good starting point, they do not account for all the factors that affect regional development.
In the 1950s, Gunnar Myrdal developed the theory of cumulative causation, which posits that the leading region has a competitive advantage in infrastructure and size. This reinforces its comparative advantage and prevents lagging regions from developing internal capacity. As a result, skilled workers and capital will flow to the leading region, while little investment is transferred to the lagging region.
The growth pole/growth center theory has a similar concept, but focuses on the economic growth potential of a few selected urban nodes. It assumes that economic growth will be concentrated initially in these urban nodes, and trickle down later. In this way, economic development in one region will benefit other regions.
Function of regional planning agencies
Regional planning agencies provide comprehensive planning for the growth and development of a region. They conduct regional studies to identify regional needs, foster economic development, and protect the environment. They also provide technical assistance and facilitate intergovernmental collaboration. They are a vital link between the federal and state governments. Regional planning agencies are mandated by federal law to designate Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in urbanized areas. These organizations coordinate federal transportation and infrastructure investments.
Regional planning agencies oversee and coordinate the process of zoning and land use. They collect data and produce maps and charts that map out the region's future. They also conduct research studies and experimental projects and advise public and private agencies on issues that affect the region's physical and social development. They also help local governments in addressing planning problems.
RPCs have become increasingly involved in the development of regional planning policies. Their primary product is the Strategic Regional Policy Plan (SRP). This plan identifies key resources in the region and develops strategies for improving the quality of life in the region. A regional planning commission may also focus on regional transportation and affordable housing, as well as environmental issues. Its work may also involve emergency preparedness and small business development.
The Regional Planning Commissions are composed of citizens, municipal members, and county and state government representatives. Citizens are appointed to serve on the Commissions for staggered four-year terms. They may only be removed for cause or after a due process hearing. Members may also be compensated by their respective local governments.
Metropolitan planning organizations also play a key role in the transportation planning process. Their mandate includes federal funding for transportation projects and infrastructure improvements, and they also coordinate the planning efforts of governmental agencies and transportation agencies within a region. In California, MPOs are also a key component of the Regional Housing Needs Assessment process.
In the United States, a lack of regional planning has resulted in sprawling suburban growth and unplanned development patterns. Lack of regional planning has also resulted in a lack of strategic coordination among local governments. In addition, the growth of the United States has been characterized by class and race dynamics, which have shaped the migration patterns of regions. In particular, white flight during the mid and late 20th century contributed to the growth of affluent suburbs and the decline of core urban areas.
The term "regional planning" is nearly universal in English-speaking countries, but the actual geographic area covered by the term varies widely. In North America, regional planning may include a metropolitan area as large as a state, a larger conurbation, or a network of settlements.
In Wisconsin, regional planning commissions are public agencies, created by executive order of the Governor. These agencies coordinate the social, economic, and physical development of a region.