Psychological Testing and Measurement
This textbook provides an overview of the principles behind psychological testing and measurement and discusses issues related to test fairness and applications. The book also discusses how psychological tests can help in the disability determination process. The next two chapters build on the overview of psychological testing and measurement and describe various types of tests. These tests include noncognitive self-report measures, symptom validity tests, and cognitive tests. These tests are also classified according to their validity and reliability.
Adaptation in psychological testing and measurement is a practice in which instruments are translated into a new cultural context. Adaptations involve various changes to instruments that increase their linguistic adequacy. This chapter provides a historical overview of the practice and discusses how adaptations are now often made by teams rather than individuals. An adaptation taxonomy is provided to distinguish cultural, linguistic, and conceptual reasons for adjusting an instrument. The taxonomy combines four common reasons.
There are many challenges involved in adaptation of an instrument. One study relied on local lay knowledge of the context and recognized concepts to adapt the instrument. It would be more accurate if local mental health professionals were engaged in the adaptation process and testing. But in many settings, such collaboration would not be possible. For example, a culturally sensitive adaptation of the Alcohol Use Scale (AUDIT) might not be feasible. The other example of a culturally-adapted instrument is the Depression and Anxiety scales. These scales often use a different definition of the same concept, causing the study's conclusions to be inaccurate.
Adaptation is an important aspect of cross-cultural research. Adaptations of psychological tests to different cultures are valuable tools for furthering research and meeting informational needs. However, the validity of these cross-cultural comparative studies is still up for debate. This article reviews the latest research in cross-cultural test adaptation and provides examples of cross-cultural assessments. For those interested in cross-cultural testing, this book will prove invaluable.
The theory behind adaptive functioning is based on the mathematical concept of item response theory (IRT). IRT can be understood through cognitive tests. The computer adaptive test estimates the scores of test takers based on their responses and adjusts the next questions accordingly. Adaptation in psychological testing and measurement is a growing field. The importance of adaptability cannot be underestimated. It can enhance the quality of psychological tests.
Psychological Testing and Measurement for development is a common practice. Tests are administered to determine the level of functioning in an individual. The respondent of these measures is typically the person taking the tests. Psychologists and physicians ask questions to gather information about a person's personality traits, interests, and typical behavior. Young children and adults may also be asked to describe a friend or family member's behavior.
When used in formal psychological assessments, psychological testing involves standardized procedures for obtaining a representative sample of behavior. The selection of appropriate tests requires specific environmental conditions and an understanding of the individual being assessed. The selection of appropriate tests requires a strong understanding of the individual being assessed, as well as clinical judgment. In short, psychological tests play a key role in educational, occupational, and disability determinations. As such, they carry high stakes. Test results can have both positive and negative consequences, so issues of fairness must be addressed.
Psychological testing is important for the development of children and young people. Research on the use of tests should be based on standards that can be applied to all individuals. Testing methods must be valid and reliable for use across diverse populations. Moreover, testing procedures must be sensitive to the particular cultures and languages of individuals. Often, there are cultural and linguistic differences, and language interpretations may produce inaccurate results. Thus, it is crucial to ensure that the testing methods used are appropriate for the age group being assessed.
Tests can also be structured into two categories: measures of typical behavior and tests of maximum performance. Tests of typical behavior may involve a series of true-or-false questions, while those of maximum performance use projective stimuli. Both types of tests require the respondent to answer questions correctly. Despite their similarities, however, they do require the respondent to cooperate. For these purposes, cognitive tests are often considered more objective and reliable.
The validity of psychological testing and measurement is the extent to which it is able to measure what it claims to measure. Valid tests allow the results to be applied and interpreted. Psychological assessment is an important part of clinical care and experimental research. Validity is not determined by a single statistic, but rather by a body of evidence demonstrating a relationship between the test and behavior. Validity is broken down into four types.
Psychologists were aware of different facets of validity before the Second World War. Before the development of the Technical Recommendations for Psychological Testing and Measurement, methods for establishing validity were confined to correlations of test scores with a known criterion. Lee Cronbach, who directed the committee that developed the first International Standards for Psychological Testing, grouped validity into four components, concurrent validity, predictive validity, content validity, and construct validation. In 1957, Messick and Cronbach published the first version of the International Tests for Psychological Assessment. The next year, Messick and Meehl published a book defining the five types of validity, which remained unchanged until today.
Tests should be evaluated for their validity by consulting the test manual and reviewing any published reviews. Independent reviews of testing should be available. Chapter 5 provides links to relevant reviews. The information in the test manual should be evaluated for reliability and appropriateness for use in the intended context, with a reference group similar to the target group. Lastly, the test manual should include a description of any validating studies. These studies should provide sufficient data for the validity determination.
The reliability of psychological testing and measurement depends on the consistency of results across different studies. The reliability of the results obtained through the test can be determined by the consistency of the scores across studies. In the case of the Rosenberg Self-Estem Scale, it can be evaluated by calculating its correlation coefficient. In other words, it can be used to identify potential problems in the examinee's life. The reliability of psychological tests is determined by the extent to which a test is useful for the purposes it was designed to measure.
Commercial psychological testing & measurement involves the administration of tests or measures that measure certain characteristics of a person. These tests can be written or administered orally with the use of an assistive device. The use of language interpreters can introduce systematic errors and may result in inaccurate scores. However, the use of technology to administer these tests is becoming more common as more psychological researchers and psychologists are realizing the benefits and limitations of relying on such tests.
Psychological tests are standardized instruments that measure different constructs in various fields of social science. They are often used for assessment, diagnosis, and research. However, finding specific tests can be challenging. Some are only available online and others may require professional credentials to administer them. In such cases, it is advisable to use an index such as PsycTESTS to identify commercial psychological tests. Besides, reviews of commercial tests can also give researchers an idea of the research methods used to develop them.
Tests can be objectively or subjectively scored. The former refers to tests with established norms and validity. Subjective scores, on the other hand, are based on examiner ratings and may be qualitative or quantitative. There are two major types of commercial tests: those that are widely used and those that are not. Generally, widely used tests contain norms and are published in commercial journals or manuals. The latter are the more accurate, but they may also be more expensive.
Another source for testing results is the Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. These publications contain information on commercial psychological tests and also reviews of previously published tests. Both of these databases contain test information on their reliability and construct validity. Further, they include links to journal articles. Another useful source for finding commercial psychological tests and measurements is the Broome Library. This library covers more than a century of psychology and focuses on the development of research instruments.
PsycTESTS is a database of 27,000 unpublished and published psychological tests, measures, and assessment tools. These publications provide detailed descriptions of psychological tests and measures, as well as information on reliability and construct validity. Many of these publications also include contact information for the test creators. For a thorough bibliography of unpublished psychological tests and measures, you may want to purchase a copy of the Mental Measurements Yearbook with Tests in Print.
The Library of Congress does not collect unpublished psychological testing & measurement tests. Although they may be useful for researchers, these materials are not widely available to the public. A more accessible resource is a database of published test articles and research articles. This type of material allows you to research unpublished tests without the costs associated with commercially published tests. In addition, you can download test instruments for research purposes. Many databases even contain scoring guides and instructions for administering tests.
Finding these publications may require several visits to the library. You can also consult online databases that specialize in the field. If you're not successful with one of these methods, you can try Google. Although it doesn't contain actual copies of psychological tests, most of the listed items include information on how to obtain a copy of the instrument. Remember that copyright clearance is required before using any of these tests. You can find psychological testing & measurement tests in the Reference Stacks at the Biomedical Library.
The most comprehensive indexes for testing information are in the Tests in Print and Measurement Handbook (MMY). The titles are listed in alphabetical order, and the test's description can be found in the Title Index. For more information, you can also use the Publishers' Directory, which is a good way to contact publishers of unpublished tests. They may also contain additional information for an individual test. These sources may be helpful for researchers, practitioners, and other stakeholders who are working with psychological testing.