Migration Studies eBooks
If you're looking for a comprehensive treatment of migrant destinies in East Asia, Migration in East Asia is the book for you. With contributions from Asia and North America, it looks at how migrants change the face of East Asia. It highlights the fact that migrants cross cultural, social, and geographic boundaries and reveal extraordinary differences in their backgrounds and trajectories.
Case Studies of boat migrations by asylum seekers and refugees
Maritime migration is a complex and extremely dangerous activity involving a variety of actors, from civil society organizations that defend human dignity to criminal syndicates that exploit the desperate plight of refugees. While the number of refugees making this hazardous journey has decreased in recent years, the death toll continues to rise. Human smugglers use increasingly sophisticated tactics to attract migrants and disguise the illegality of their actions.
The causes of displacement are many, ranging from conflict to poverty. The sea crossing is the last stage in a long journey that can include journeys through conflict zones, deserts, and the danger of kidnapping and torture for ransom. Moreover, the people who make this journey risk being abused by human traffickers.
The latest report from the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) examines the legal framework around maritime rescue, challenges of disembarkation, and policy options for preventing unauthorized maritime migration. The report also offers case studies for the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and the Red Sea/Gulf of Aden.
The study also highlights blind spots in labour market policy. In many cases, the experience of migrants in their home country is undermined by the labour market policies. For example, registration procedures are too expensive and stringent. Further research needs to examine gendered and racialized practices.
Health issues associated with the migration process are another concern. Several studies have found that the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) has increased among refugees and asylum seekers from the Middle East. A small study in Syria found a prevalence of 9% among refugees. A larger study in the US found that the prevalence was three times higher among refugees from sub-Saharan Africa.
In the past few years, the UK has taken action to stop the arrival of asylum seekers by boat. This has led to a reduction in arrivals to the UK. The government has also bolstered its response to small boats in the Channel. It also increased funding for the Royal Navy, which will now be better equipped to respond to small boats.
Impact of remittances on refugees' remittances
In recent years, remittances inflows have increased significantly, and they now account for the largest external financial inflow in some developing countries, surpassing official development assistance and foreign direct investment. According to the World Bank, remittances make up about a third of the total inflows to developing countries. Increases in remittances have been particularly large in Africa, where they now account for up to 22 percent of the GDP in some countries. The amount of remittances can vary widely by region and recipient household size.
Remittances can also benefit the recipient country's economy. They can smooth consumption and increase household expenditure, which can lead to multiplier effects. Furthermore, remittances can alleviate credit constraints in developing countries and promote economic growth. In addition, remittances can support investment by reducing volatility, which in turn contributes to a more stable macroeconomic environment for investment activities.
However, remittances can have an inflationary effect. This impact is particularly acute when the recipient country suffers a food shortage, as it was in Khartoum in the late 1980s. Although much research remains to be done, the consensus on the economic impact of remittances remains positive.
Remittances are also a source of social capital. These include ideas, behaviors, and identities that were transferred from one community to another. Remittances also help to offset the shortage of foreign currency in poor countries. In addition to this, remittances are a major source of income for families and communities.
However, there are several factors that may affect remittances. The slowdown in the economy and the fall in commodity prices are likely to affect remittances. While Nigeria remains the largest recipient of remittances in SSA, the other leading recipients include Gambia, Liberia, and Lesotho. Remittances to these countries amount to close to 20 percent of their GDP.
Refugee remittances largely contribute to the local economy and local economies. They represent a significant part of the economy of low and middle-income countries and supplement the income of individual households. They are essential sources of income for many developing countries, and in some cases exceed aid and foreign direct investment.
Social encapsulation of migrants after long periods of absence
Social encapsulation after long absence can be seen as a process in which migrants develop cosmopolitan capital in the host society. In their theoretical framework, Codagnone and Kluzer argue that the development of cosmopolitan capital can be seen as a relational continuum.
Various factors contribute to social encapsulation. First of all, migrants are exposed to different stressors. This can lead to negative mental health and affect the integration process. In addition, migrants are subject to different challenges when integrating into the host community, such as unemployment, assimilation difficulties, and discrimination. Moreover, migrants and refugees face a high rate of mental disorders, and they often lack access to mental health services.
Social encapsulation is a process in which the migrant's culture interacts with that of the majority culture in the new community. This process can have a range of effects, including changing the dominant cultural group and improving the ability of the dominant group to understand aspects of the immigrant's culture.
The process of migration occurs in a number of contexts, including rural-urban migration, inter-rural migration, and inter-national migration. Migration may be voluntary or involuntary and can occur as a result of economic or educational reasons. People may move alone or in groups.
Social encapsulation may reduce feelings of loss and grief among migrants. It can also help them regain equilibrium by feeling like they belong in their new home. In addition to the sense of belonging, acculturation can make the majority culture appear less threatening or even inviting. Social support can also occur in the form of employment opportunities, social networks, and medical care.
Demographics of movers and stayers in the European Union
The demographics of movers and stayers in the EU are a complicated question. Many of the EU member states have high migration rates, especially Central and Eastern European countries, while many have low migration rates. In fact, in many cases, the population of the source country is much smaller than the population of the destination country.
Nevertheless, it is possible to find out the general characteristics of migrants in the EU. According to a recent study by Eurobarometer, the majority of intra-EU labour mobility is based on economic factors. The study revealed that income and employment differentials are the main push factors, while the social and political situation and network factors are major pull factors. However, the economic crisis has triggered major changes in intra-EU mobility patterns.
Intra-EU migration from third-country countries makes up a small percentage of all movements in the EU. In countries with available data, the share of non-EU nationals is less than 4 percent. However, third-country nationals' mobility in the EU is increasing rapidly.
Among stayers, family ties are the least common reason for migration, with fewer than four out of 10 movers citing family ties as the primary cause for relocation. Those who stayed cited job or business opportunities as their main reason for remaining in their new homes.
According to the latest statistics from the European Union's statistical office, there were 31.9 million foreign nationals living in the EU-27 in 2009. This is 6.4 percent of the EU's entire population, and the vast majority of these individuals came from other EU member states.