Best Middle Eastern History in 2022

Middle Eastern History - Sykes-Picot, Levantine Kingdoms, Phoenician Civilization, and the Ottoman Empire

In this article, you will learn about Sykes-Picot, Levantine kingdoms, Phoenician civilization, and the Ottoman Empire. Middle Eastern History is not only a fascinating topic for historians, but also an essential part of understanding the world. It is also important for you to understand the region's contemporary history, because it has shaped the world we live in today. However, before you can understand its past, you must first have a basic understanding of the world.


France and Britain wanted to boost infrastructure and education in the area after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Through the use of strict measures and the exploitation of energy resources, they consolidated their representative power. In the aftermath of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, Britain gained control of Mosul and Palestine. This act led to protests from the Turks, who resisted the British annexation of their city. However, the League of Nations ratified the British annexation of the city in 1925.

The Sykes-Picot Agreement, as well as the subsequent partition of the Middle East, have been the source of lingering resentment and conflict in the region. The British were responsible for inventing the four-color Arab national flag and for introducing nationalist movements in the Middle East. But Radical Islam rejects the concept of nationalism and believes in the revival of the Islamic Ummah, a state governed by Islamic law.

The agreement was signed by Francois Georges-Picot and Mark Sykes. The treaty divided the Middle East into three parts, each with its own political and economic interests. The Sykes-Picot Agreement was based on limited understandings of the Middle East and its characteristics. The agreement was signed in secret and under an atmosphere of distrust and suspicion. Despite the ramifications, the agreement is one of the most important documents in Middle Eastern history.

Levantine kingdoms

The region of the Levant, formerly known as the Arab World, is now home to a population of about 44 million people. Among these are Arabs, Turkmens, Armenians, and Assyrians. The Levantine people have long practiced Christianity, and Christian denominations in the region include Greek Orthodox, Maronite, Roman Catholic, and Oriental. Levantine history is rich in cultural and religious diversity.

The emergence of Islamic and secular thought in the Middle East, as well as a modern neo-colonial perspective, has prompted historians to reconsider how Levantine kingdoms fit into the larger history of the region. In particular, a recent study of the Levantine region highlights the way in which this ancient region was shaped by a series of empires and dynasties.

The ancient history of the Levant includes the Akkadian Empire, the Amorite Kingdom, the Hittite Empire, and the Assyrian, Persian, and Byzantine powers. By the late Seventeenth Century, the French and Italians had established trade routes to the Levant and cultivated religious ties with Christian rulers. In the Seventeenth Century, the French and Italians played a vital role in the revitalization of the Levant, as they engaged in extensive trade and religious exchange.

Phoenician civilization

During the Bronze Age, the Phoenicians were vassals of Egypt, but they resisted the demand of the ruler, Wenamun, for tribute. Later, they entered into a commercial arrangement with the Egyptians, and their influence grew. However, there is still much controversy about the exact nature of this arrangement. In this article, we will discuss some of the most interesting aspects of Phoenician civilization.

Chapter VI explores the role of Phoenicianism in Lebanon from the mid-19th century to the formation of Greater Lebanon. This chapter examines how Phoenicianism was manifested in Lebanese society during the mandate years. After independence, the book considers how the civilization shaped the identity of Lebanese nationals, as well as how they have maintained ties to their Phoenician roots.

The Phoenician empire spread throughout the Mediterranean from around 1100 to 200 BCE. During their heyday, their rich trading culture spread across the Mediterranean, forming independent city-states from Lebanon to southern Syria to Northern Israel. In later years, their influence spread into Spain, where their colonies were based, including the Mediterranean port city of Cadiz. These colonial empires continued to grow over the next 500 years, becoming one of the greatest civilizations in Middle Eastern history.

The Phoenicians were a culture of city-states that shared some similarities with other Canaanites. Phoenicia had a monarchical political system that was centered around city-states. They also heavily relied on maritime trade, and their seafaring spirit brought them into contact with many other civilizations. So, this civilization is worth exploring. They have a lot to teach us about history and culture.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire dominated most of the Middle East over the last two centuries. The Ottoman Turks, who came to the region in the early sixteenth century, were a better-equipped people to govern the region than twentieth-century superpowers. They had no illusions about how capitalism, democracy, and communism would solve the problems in the region, and they had little concern for the material well-being of their subjects.

As a Ph.D. candidate in Middle Eastern Studies at Columbia University, Matt Ross focuses on the social and economic history of the Ottoman Empire. His dissertation explores the role of sectarianism, humanitarianism, and religion in Ottoman-Arab provinces during the eighteenth century. The two Rosses are now based in Istanbul, where they are actively engaged in training new team members.

During this time, the Ottomans adopted a unique social structure called the millet. The millet granted non-Muslim communities autonomy, allowing them to raise taxes and resolve internal legal disputes. They remained loyal to the sult, however, and followed rules concerning dhimmi and green millet. However, the Ottoman Empire eventually lost its power in the Middle East and Europe.

The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I in 1307. Ertugrul, a Ghazi mercenary who migrated from central Asia to Western Asia minor, was given a territory in Eskisehir by the Seljuk Turks. Osman expanded this Ghazi territory, but was killed before he could capture Bursa, which he later gave to Orkhan, a descendant of Osman. Subsequent rulers continued this expansion and the Sultan took on the role of Muslim Caliph.

Arab nationalism

The history of Arab nationalism deserves a fresh look, given its explosive rise and rapid decline. Until now, the subject has not been included in a broader debate about identity instability. In its early years, Arab nationalism enjoyed prominence in comparative nationalism. It was then relegated to the domain of specialists. Here is a brief overview of this subject. Let's start with a definition.

During the First World War, Arab nationalists thought they were free of foreigners, but instead, it was the whip of dominance. They failed to deliver the promised freedom from the oppression of the Turks and the British, and in the process, their country suffered. Throughout the Second World War, Arab nationalism turned from a revolutionary movement into a fascist and liberal movement, filled with disbelievers and mockers of their own faith.

In the Cold War, Arab nationalism was especially significant, because it helped to fuel the American and European economies. Middle Eastern oil supplies were vital for both countries, and the Soviet Union recognized that and tried to compete with the West in the region, hoping to gain an advantage in the bi-polar power struggle. However, as the Cold War ended, Arab nationalism was far from dead. Instead, it was a failure to bring about the Arabs' desired outcome.

Arab women

The rise of female empowerment in the Arab world is a welcome development, especially given the region's long history of oppression and misogyny. Arab societies have a particularly low level of education and a history of authoritarian rule, which makes achieving equality and justice for women an uphill struggle. Nevertheless, the Arab world has produced several examples of women's empowerment, such as the emergence of women's organizations and the successful campaigning of Saudi women to drive.

While the veil is not a sign of Islamic patriarchy, it is a symbol that is linked to contemporary discourse. Until recently, Western scholars trying to understand the history of women in the Middle East had no real access to a deeper understanding of the subject because their sources were limited to ethnographies or compensatory histories. Nevertheless, Arab women have made a mark on Middle Eastern history, influencing religious thought, the arts and sciences, and even the founding of the region's first educational institutions. Middle Eastern Eye traces the lives and accomplishments of seven women, from medieval times to the modern era.

A media watch project is needed to monitor the dissemination of images of Arab women in the media. Such a project should establish measurements for the dissemination of images of Arab women, allowing for a more scientific approach to the problem. The project should involve all departments involved in the local media of each Arab country, including daily and weekly print media, national radio networks, and local terrestrial channels. The project should also aim to develop comparative studies, and implement similar approaches in countries that face similar problems.

Cathy Warwick

Over 20 years experience within UK & European Retail & Contract Furniture, Fabric, Equipment, Accessories & Lighting. Having worked on “both sides of the fence” as European manufacturer UK rep/agent to dealer & specifier has given me a unique understanding and perspective of initial product selection all the way along the process to installation and beyond. Working closely with fabricators, manufacturers, end clients, designers, QSs, project manager and contractors means I have very detailed and rounded knowledge of the needs and expectations of each of these groups, be it creative, technical or budgetary, and ensure I offer the very best service and value for money to meet their needs. I enhance the performance of any business by way of my commercial knowledge, networking & friendly relationship building ability and diplomatic facilitation skills to build trusting long term relationships with clients of all organisational levels and sectors.

📧Email | 📘 LinkedIn