Literary Movements & Periods
If you're looking to expand your reading list, consider these different Literary Movements & Periods. From Realism to Postmodernism, you'll be able to read books that explore themes and ideas unique to these movements. Gothic fiction is a great example of this type of literature. But you don't have to limit your reading to literature from these periods - you can read about different genres too!
The Postmodernism literary movement and period was characterized by the rejection of traditional meaning and order, often in favor of a bleak, surreal world. Many authors of postmodern fiction rely on techniques like irony and black humor to express their ideas. They are also often characterized by the use of unreliable narrators and dark humor. Postmodern authors tend to avoid using overt meanings, and instead attempt to convey the message through irony and self-reference.
The movement is a reaction to modernism, which emphasized Western values. It also rejected the idea of the 'high art,' which sought to reveal deep truths about human experience. In contrast, Postmodernist literature and art focus on surface images, instead of the underlying meanings. Although postmodernism is a reaction to modernism, it is distinct from it in many ways. It was a reaction to the modernist movement and the tenets of the nineteenth century.
In the literature of the Postmodernism period, strict time lines were relaxed. Instead, postmodernist writers would often create a series of events without a clear connection to their time. The reader would have to draw their own time line, which was then dismantled later. For example, many television shows today show two events occurring at the same time. Jameson termed this kind of temporal disruption'schizophrenia.'
Naturalism is a form of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles to human life. Unlike realism, naturalists focus on the emotional and social nature of human beings, focusing on their instincts, passions, and lives as they are dictated by heredity and environment. Naturalism has been divided into two distinct types by critics. Some say that naturalism is simply an extension of realism, while others claim that it is a distinct genre unto itself.
French writer Zola is an example of a naturalist. Zola's novels and plays were read quickly and critics and government censors called them "putrid literature." In France, Zola and his publishers often faced obscenity charges. In the United States, naturalist literature began to gain popularity when cheap pulp editions with racy covers first appeared. Zola's novels are widely considered a key influence on twentieth-century literature, but the controversy surrounding his role in the Dreyfus affair in France made his work controversial.
In France, naturalism was a relatively short-lived movement. In America, however, it was a broad-ranging term that encompassed a diverse group of works and movements over a long period of time. Donald Pizer has mapped the role of naturalism in twentieth-century U.S. literature. Its impact on American literature is also discussed by Pizer. A brief overview of some important works examining naturalism is given below.
Realism is a literary genre that emphasizes the inner workings of the human mind and explores the plight of the ordinary. The use of colloquial speech and the setting also play an important role in realism, as its characters are typically middle or lower-class. Realism writers explore the relationship between economic transformation and morality, and often emphasize the preservation of unique ways of life before the industrial age. This genre was made popular by the rapid rise of magazines, which reached a female audience with short fiction.
In the 19th century, the main representative of French realism was Honore de Balzac, a novelist who utilized realistic motifs, recurring characters, and specific detail to create realistic and evocative stories. The collection of nearly 100 novels, La Comedie humaine, was one of the most ambitious schemes ever devised by a writer of fiction. This novel collection was an attempt to tell a complete contemporary history of the French people.
While realism has a long tradition, it is particularly associated with the nineteenth century. A general movement in the theatre, theatrical realism sought to imbue texts with a greater fidelity to the realities of everyday life. Like naturalism, theatrical realism focused on everyday drama, ordinary speech, and mundane settings. While both schools emphasize the reality of the world, there are significant differences between realism and naturalism. While naturalism believes in the power of external forces, realism asserts the power of the individual to make choices.
There are many different styles of critical analysis of Gothic fiction, including psychoanalytical, Marxist, and feminist approaches. Psychoanalytical and feminist critics are often informed by Sigmund Freud, who's 1919 essay "The Uncanny" provides an excellent starting point for analysis of Gothic fiction. Marxist critics focus on the class structure in novels and how it reflects the biases of the novelists.
A common theme in Gothic literature is guilt and reparation for past sins. Walpole's The Castle of Otranto uses the death of an heir to right a wrong. Conrad's The Castle of Otranto depicts an ancestor who returns from the dead to make sure he's the rightful heir. The author's sins are visited on his children. Gothic writing is often characterized by themes of guilt, revenge, and revenge.
The Gothic literature movement traces its origins to medieval Europe, specifically the medieval era. Gothic authors often deviate from reality by creating complex narratives with many layers of doubling. In the Melmoth the Wanderer, for instance, the structure is broken into multiple stories. The stories are often distorted in both spatial and chronological development, giving the work a dream-like quality. This style of fiction has a rich history, and if you're looking for a novel that explores this theme, you've come to the right place.
A literary movement that began in the mid-eighteenth century in England, Gothic literature began as a description of a fallen world. Early Gothic novels were very philosophical and focused on religion and morality. Romance was rare in this genre, but it eventually developed into a number of subgenres and became one of the most popular forms of horror and suspense literature. There are many Gothic writers, including Horace Walpole, Ann Radcliffe, Matthew Lewis, Edgar Allan Poe, and Robert Louis Stevenson.
Transcendentalism in literature is an important topic in American literature. Transcendentalists argue that human freedom is not limited to individual freedom, but also depends on communal and collective action. This idea has influenced a number of literary movements and periods, including American romanticism, the 19th century Surrealist movement, and the modern movement. Ultimately, Transcendentalism has shaped the way we view philosophical ideas and religious beliefs. In many literature, transcendentalism is a way of life, and it is an important part of American culture.
The earliest expressions of transcendentalism developed in New England during the 1830s. Unitarianism was a dominant religious movement in the area, which emphasized knowledge and rationality as a way to attain spirituality. This philosophy influenced many young men, including Emerson and Thoreau. Other members of this movement included Margaret Fuller, a pioneer in feminism. Unitarianism was a prominent religious movement in Boston during this time, and many of the earliest Transcendentalists studied at Harvard University.
While the philosophy behind transcendentalism is not particularly new, it is difficult to understand because it was developed over a long period of time. However, this article focuses on a simple definition of transcendentalism and provides an overview of the movement's history. Besides a short description of this movement, it also provides examples of works written by transcendentalists. It also highlights the important role of ideas in literature.
There are several literary movements and periods where magical realism is prevalent. For instance, Ben Okri's novel The Famished Road is a perfect example. His work demonstrates the hybridity and restraint of magical realism through characters and social reality. It is important to recognize that magical realism is not as universal as it is often considered. Instead, it is a cultural project with many influences and multiple manifestations.
Among the most notable writers of this style are the British-Indian novelist Salman Rushdie, as well as African American writers Toni Morrison and Gloria Naylor. Latino authors include Ana Castillo, Rudolfo Anaya, and Daniel Olivas. Native American writers include Louise Erdrich and Sherman Alexie. The term "magical realism" is also used to describe a literary movement that fuses reality and the fantastic.
While these two literary movements have different roots, their themes and techniques are similar. In Latin America, for example, magical realism is a reaction to the chaos of the time. Menton's book looks at the literary movement's origins and identifies notable features among Latin American works. It also examines the evolution of magical realism from the late nineteenth century through the twentieth century.
While Latin American writers are credited for developing the genre, many of its major influences are found outside of the region. Some works, such as the novels of Salman Rushdie and Toni Morrison, use fantastic elements to tell the story of India's origins. The genre is also often found in postcolonial literature that explores national identity. Its popularity is widely appreciated and continues to expand, despite the many complexities of the world today.