Best History & Philosophy on Science & Nature in 2022

History & Philosophy on Science & Nature

For centuries, humans have been forced to recognize the regularities of nature. These regularities are important for human survival, as the movement of the Sun and the Moon correlated with important terrestrial events. In addition, day and night are the basic rhythm of human life. The seasons determine the movements of animals, including humans, and we have relied on these patterns for millennia. Science enables us to understand the natural world around us.

Descartes

When Descartes wrote his Discourse on Human Understanding in 1637, he received numerous letters challenging various doctrines, including the distinction between mind and body. He argued that while we may not be able to see the body, we can observe its properties. Although this may seem esoteric, Descartes' philosophy is essentially sound and well regarded. Here are five key points that make his writings stand out.

First, Descartes formulated an ambitious treatise on the universe. Instead of trying to explain one phenomenon, he opted to develop a theory that covered all phenomena in nature, including the movement of objects and their size. This view led to the creation of The World, which he intended to be composed of three parts - Light, Man, and the Soul. In this work, Descartes addresses the subject of human life and proposes a general theory of the universe.

During the 1630s, Descartes' work was suppressed. He published only a small sample of his philosophy anonymously, including his early writings, early metaphysical investigations, and the mind-body dualism. However, he avoided the deep skepticism of his Meditations, which had led him to firmly assert that the essence of matter is extension. In this way, Descartes' theory of the nature of reality is not just a hypothesis, but rather a hypothesis that reflects his own understanding of nature.

Galileo

Galileo's work has been the subject of much debate, interpretation, and controversy, but what we are most interested in is his philosophical implications, both of his works and the name of his institution. Let's explore Galileo's methodological pronouncements to better understand what he was trying to say. The main point of his argument is that books are not "true," but they do "adumbrate" the truth.

To make sense of this, Galileo first needed to define the nature of matter. He believed that the moving arms of a balance can serve as an example for treating natural motion. He then went on to study the properties of specific gravities, including gravity, entropy, and mass. In the process, he became one of the most influential thinkers in the history of science.

Galileo's second new science dealt with the mathematical description of local motion, and he established the law of free fall as a consequence of this. He also defined acceleration as the ratio of time to place. This later led him to define the law of free fall, and he recognized the physical significance of the mean proportional relation. His final work, Two New Sciences, lays the foundations for modern physics.

Huygens

As a highly successful internationalist in the field of science, Huygens was recruited by the powerful minister of finance of Louis XIV to become the first foreign fellow of the Royal Society in Britain. His work on the atomic theory was so groundbreaking that it fueled an intense debate among scientists across Europe. Huygens also maintained contact with a number of Dutch thinkers and scientists in the Netherlands, where he lived and worked in the Hague.

Huygens's study of probability theory led him to propose that science is certain knowledge. He did not accept Christianity as his religion, so he speculated about extraterrestrial life. His book, Cosmotheoros, was published shortly before his death. He also maintained that liquid water was necessary for life on Earth, and that he believed extraterrestrials could be inhabiting alien planets.

Moreover, Huygens was a genius mathematician. However, his efforts were overshadowed by the innovations of Newton in the 18th century. His gravitation theory was never taken seriously by the scientific community, but his work on rotating bodies and his contributions to physical science were of eternal importance. In the end, the book was the foundation for Newton's success in science.

Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn, a philosopher and historian of science, is widely credited for his 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. This work broke from positivist doctrines, and brought philosophy closer to the history of science. In this book, he argued that science enjoys periods of stability and growth, and that theories from different periods are incommensurable. This idea has influenced the history of science, sociology, and philosophy of science.

Thomas Kuhn began his academic career by teaching undergraduates a class on the history of science. His studies included eighteenth-century matter theory, the early history of thermodynamics, and the history of astronomy. After graduating from the university, he began his own research on the history of astronomy and eventually published his first book. His work in the field continues to influence the philosophy of science and nature.

After completing his first philosophical monograph, Kuhn continued his research in history and philosophy of science, developing his thesis on incommensurability. He was currently writing a second philosophical monograph, which dealt with the evolution of scientific change. He also wrote about concept acquisition in developmental psychology. This book remains one of his most important contributions to philosophy. You can find an online version of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions at kuhn.com/kuhn on history & philosophy of science & nature

Poincare

In the History 'Poincare,' Gray traces the life and work of this great French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. He discovered new types of complex functions and laid the foundations for the modern theories of chaos and topology. His intellectual biography is an academic triumph, covering not only Poincare's life but also the vast corpus of topics that he explored.

The new translation of Poincare's classic has been long overdue. The translators have revised and updated the language to reflect the changes in Poincare's thinking over the centuries. This new edition of Poincare's History & Philosophy of Science & Nature will serve as the definitive English translation of the work. Poincare's work has long fascinated and educated countless readers around the world.

While Poincare is a strong advocate of a rational, empirical approach to the study of nature, his stance on geometry has largely been misunderstood. He considered the basic principles of mechanics to be conventions, but argued that they were necessary preconditions for the study of higher sciences. He also rejected the empiricism that came with Russell's conception of nature as purely empirical.

Herschel

William Herschel's surveys of the heavens established a new era in astronomy. His account includes sketches and diagrams from his manuscripts, and explores the scientist's attempts to delineate the structure of the Milky Way galaxy. His biographer Michael Hoskin also includes information about Herschel's wife, Caroline, who was usually portrayed as a supporter of her husband, but who was an equally important astronomer in her own right.

Herschel's observations are provisional, a characteristic that Foucault identified as a natural history. His observations shifted between star clusters and cloud-like nebula, and he was viewed by many of his contemporaries as being irregular. Although this is an indictment of scientific observation, Foucault's description of Herschel's natural history is worth exploring.

While Herschel had a wide-ranging interests and analytical abilities, he struggled to keep up with the growing specialization in natural philosophy. While Darwin visited Herschel in Cape Town during the Beagle voyage, he rejected his work, declaring natural selection as a "law of higgledy-piggledy piggledy." He also argued against the conservation of energy and his defense of Boscovichian atomism. These divergence from other leading scientists should be addressed in an author's biography.

Einstein

Throughout his life, Einstein aimed to understand the world around him. While he worked as a physicist, his greatest accomplishments came outside the laboratory. His papers on the photoelectric effect, brownian motion, and the nature of radiation laid the foundations for the theories of mass and energy. He also studied the thermal properties of light and the quantum theory of radiation. These papers have contributed to the understanding of the structure of the universe.

A major contribution to science is the search for a single, general theory of relativity. Einstein believed that the right concepts are self-invented, so long as they are mathematically simple. Ultimately, this proved to be a misguided approach to the search for an ideal general theory. As such, he failed to make any major discoveries based on his search for mathematical simplicity.

Another major contribution of Einstein's philosophy of science was his critique of traditional scientific philosophy. Traditional philosophical systems failed to draw any conclusions from Einstein's theories, and the General Theory of Relativity prompted a new kind of philosophy. This book explores this history and philosophy in more detail. While Einstein's philosophical approach is largely devoted to science, the book also explores the development of philosophy in the twentieth century.



Abby Hussein

As a single mother, career for my own mother, working full time, while trying to set up a business, no-one knows better than I do how important finding and maintaining the right balance in life is. During this rollercoaster of a journey, I lost myself, lost my passion, lost my drive and turned into an automated machine, who's sole purpose is cater and serve others. Needless to say, I became very disillusioned with life, my mental health became compromised and I just didn't have anything to give anymore. My work suffered, my family suffered, and most of all, I suffered. It took all the courage and strength that I could muster to turn this around and find an equilibrium that serves me first, allowing me to achieve all of my goals and reams while doing all the things that were required of me and those that I required of myself.

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