History in Portuguese
While the History in Portuguese course fills an educational gap, it fails to question the Portuguese conquest of Asia and the Atlantic slave trade. Portugal left its last colony in the 1970s after decades of fascist rule. The lack of critical thinking in the Portuguese history course has been criticized by both the socialist left and the nationalist right. Socialist Jaime Gama called the curriculum perverse. In addition, Portuguese historian Joao Pedro Marques has written extensively about the slave trade and the Portuguese role in it.
The Portuguese's history was marked by an aggressive and successful trading relationship and political alliance with the Wolof people. Portuguese forces ousted the Muslims from the gold trade in central Africa, and established trading posts in Feira and Zumbo. In the last decades of the 15th century, they established a sea route to India, which they controlled within a decade. They also influenced other countries, including the Arabs, Chinese, and British.
Moreover, the PHish database is not definitive or complete. Further updates will be made depending on the available funding and resources. To minimize the potential for usage biases, future surveys of historical data should emphasize on rectifying temporal and spatial heterogeneity. To address this gap, future studies of the history of the Portuguese language should focus on coastal areas. They should also consider the cultural context of fisheries exploitation. There are several methods to achieve these goals.
The first port wine was named for the city of Porto. The port wine was primarily produced in the Douro Valley and transported to Porto in barcos rabelos. In 1703, a treaty between Portugal and England allowed British merchants to import port at a low duty. To preserve the quality of port wine on long sea voyages, grape brandy was added to it. The port wine became popular throughout the world.
Portugal achieved independence from Spain in 1668. The country had been suffering from its Spanish connection since 1580. A memorable event in Portuguese history is the Tavoras Revolution, which was organized by Marquis de Pombal, chief minister to King Joseph I. He crushed the higher nobility in an attempt to regain his dominion over Lisbon. Nevertheless, the monarchy was restored after the inquisition and a left-wing military coup in 1974.
The Portuguese language inherited much of its vocabulary from Germanic languages. During the late Middle Ages, Catholic Church use of Church Latin influenced the language, and the Renaissance period gave Classical antiquity a high prestige. For example, the Latin aurum became ouro ("gold"), and the Latin localem became lugar (local). Many erudite Greek and Roman words are still present in Portuguese today.
After the First Republic was overthrown, an anti-democratic party swept to power and imposed a new government. The Republic began in 1910, following the assassination of King Carlos I. It was not a long-lasting period, and the monarchy soon fell victim to political corruption. After the 1910 republic, a military coup installed a one-party authoritarian regime led by Antonio Oliveira Salazar. Portugal's economy suffered under the regime, but the country's population grew rapidly, thanks in large part to the war.
Portugal's first colonial endeavors brought the country into contact with many other nations. After the discovery of the Indian Ocean by Vasco da Gama, Portuguese sailors began exploring the ocean. They discovered the Canary Islands, Madagascar, and the Azores. They also made contact with China and the Cape Verde coast. In the 16th century, Portugal established trading ports with India, Africa, and Japan. The Portuguese continued to expand their empire after the discovery of the Americas in 1498.
By the 12th century, Portugal was a county called Portucale. The kingdom of Leon ruled over the region, and Portugal was part of it. The King of Leon married two daughters to Burgundians, who were related to Hugo of Cluny, the famous abbot of Cluny, a centre of European culture. The Burgundians brought with them their courtiers and plotted to exert influence over the Portuguese kingdom.
Before the 13th century, the Portuguese and Galician languages were one linguistic unit. The first evidence for Portuguese and Galician is scattered words in Latin texts from the 9th and 12th centuries. In 1192, a property agreement refers to a well-to-do family in the Minho River valley. The Portuguese language spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula by the late fourteenth century and lasted for centuries.
Influence of other languages on Portuguese
The influence of other languages on Portuguese history dates back to the eighth century, when the Moorish Empire conquered Portugal and Spain. During the Moorish occupation, Arabic became the official language of the Iberian Peninsula. Arabic, or Mozarabic, had a profound impact on Portuguese lexicon. Today, the Portuguese language contains between 400 and 800 Arabic words, many of which have agricultural or craft-related meanings. Placenames in the southern provinces show the influence of Arabic.
Germanic language influence was also evident in the placenames and surnames of Visigoth sovereigns. Words such as "resende" and "carroca" came from Germanic languages. Many common Portuguese objects and concepts, including the macadamia nuts, were derived from these languages, including pasta, fiambre, and castelhano. The use of these words in Portuguese is also notable, as they incorporated a variety of Germanic and Romance roots.
The Portuguese language is a Romance language. Its roots are in Latin and have close ties with the history of the Iberian Peninsula. Despite its Romance roots, Portuguese has a rich pre-Roman history. Romance and Gallaecian were the languages spoken in the region before the Romans arrived. Many of the Portuguese words in the present day language derive from Celtic and Germanic languages.
The two most common changes in the language's pronunciation are based on the sibilant system. Old Portuguese had seven sibilants, the same as Spanish and Italian, but in the latter case, the sibilants are deaffricated. Portuguese has a much more modern pronunciation than Spanish and Italian. Its vowels were altered, and a few other linguistic features were modified. The Portuguese language has a more nasal sound.
While the Portuguese language has its roots in Europe, most of its 210 million speakers live elsewhere. Compared to Spanish, it is spoken more in South America than in Europe. In Angola, nearly 60% of the population claims Portuguese as their mother tongue, and the language is the official language, but coexists with several other languages. Portuguese dialects also vary throughout the country. While there is one main Portuguese dialect, others are derived from local languages.
Influence of Arabic on placenames
The Arabs influenced the language of Portugal, but only to a limited degree. Although Portuguese had little Arabic influence compared to Castillian/Spanish, it still contains hundreds of Arabic words. These words are mainly used in economic and social contexts, including terms of foreign goods, politics, cultural objects, and familial terms. The Arabic vocabulary in Portugal was mainly used by the bureaucracy. The Arabic word for bus, for instance, is derived from the Italian bagno.
Many European languages are influenced by Arabic, and many Arabic words have entered Portuguese. Spanish, for example, contains several Arabic loanwords. Words such as benidorm and benimantell came from the Arabic language, and words like ijazah and zenit have reached Portuguese from Arabic. Arabic is also an important source of placenames in other languages, including Italian, French, and German.
The influence of Arabic on Portuguese lexicon is extensive, extending to 17 semantic fields. According to Alugha, Arabic had the most influence on Portuguese and the Spanish idioms, and over four thousand words in modern Spanish have Arabic roots. One such example is the word "azulejo," whose origin is Arabic (az-zulayj). The Spanish word for polished stone is azulejo, which comes from the Arabic az-zulayj.