Historical Spanish and Portuguese Biographies
Historical Spanish & Portuguese Biographies give us a great opportunity to learn about the history of Portugal and Spain, as well as the evolution of their civilization. These books will teach you about the influence of Portuguese scientists, how Portuguese sailors rejected the idea of sailing west to the Indies, and the role of the Jesuits. There are also many fascinating stories to discover in these books. And they are fun! Read on for more!
Robert Russell's influence on Portuguese science
One of the most important contributions made by a scientist in the Portuguese context is the discovery of the volta do mar, the so-called turn of the sea in the North Atlantic. This pattern of returning westerlies and trade winds near the equator provided a crucial step in Atlantic navigation. This discovery changed the way we think about the role of religion in science. Robert Russell is a key figure in this development.
Portugal's rejection of sailing west to reach the Indies
In 1485, Christopher Columbus presented his plans for a western route to the Indies to the court of Portugal. The king's experts argued that this route would take much longer than Columbus had predicted. In fact, the real distance to the Indies was even further than the Portuguese estimate. Still, Portugal and Spain had their own reasons for rejecting Columbus's plan, and the new division proved to be a significant turnback for the Portuguese.
The new empire had to be explored in order to maintain its economic position, and the first step was exploring the Indies. However, Portugal's rejection of sailing west to the Indies led to the discovery of the Americas, and the Spanish and Portuguese civilization developed around these lands. Eventually, the Portuguese government was able to settle in these lands, and in 1492, Columbus was granted freedom.
King Manuel I chose Da Gama as the leader of the Portuguese fleet in the hopes of finding a maritime route from Europe to the East. The Muslim monopoly on trade with India and other Eastern nations forced Portugal to avoid sailing west and into the southern ocean. However, Da Gama's first expedition to India failed to establish a trading post in Calicut and was returned to Portugal without a treaty.
During the fourteenth century, the Spanish and Portuguese royal courts debated whether or not to sail west to India. A number of exploratory ships mapped the coastline of Western Africa, including the Cape of Good Hope in 1488. Many hoped to circumnavigate Africa and reach the Indies by sea. The idea of sailing west became more attractive to Columbus when he based his beliefs on the teachings of Aristotle and Ptolemy, the ancient astronomers whose ideas remained the foundation for European medieval astronomy.
Portuguese Jesuits' forfeiture of Portuguese citizenship
The legal solution to the issue of the Portuguese Jesuits' forfeiture of Portuguese nationality has been a hot topic in the news of late. The Socialist Party claimed that a legal solution would attract schemes to "negotiate" Portuguese nationality with Jewish communities. However, the proposals are meant to protect the principle of effective nationality, and the final reading of the Organic Law refers to further regulation to be passed within 90 days. This further regulation will establish the criteria by which people with Portuguese citizenship must prove their connection with the country.
The first Jesuits to enter Portugal were Simon Rodriguez and Francis Xavier. The Portuguese king wanted to retain the Jesuits in Portugal, but Ignatius and the Jesuits negotiated with him. In 1542, Rodriguez opened a "college" in Coimbra, which was at first a place of residence for Jesuits studying at the University of Coimbra. However, the institution's purpose was to provide academic instruction for Portuguese citizens.
Portugal's first Jesuit mission to Brazil was sent by King Joao III in 1549. This mission was led by the Jesuit Father Manuel da Nobrega, during the first governor-generalship in Bahia, Tome de Souza. The Jesuits' mission was part of the Society of Jesus, an early Catholic order. They traveled the world as missionaries, engaging in evangelization and education.
The law also provides for the naturalization of descendants of Sephardic Jews of Portuguese descent. The new law paved the way for hundreds of Jewish naturalization applications from Sephardic Portugal, whose descendants were expelled from the country centuries ago. This is a positive step for the Portuguese Jesuits. Fortunately, the law also allows for dual citizenship. A Portuguese citizen who holds a foreign citizenship does not lose their Portuguese citizenship when they become a citizen of another country.
Portuguese Jesuits' influence on Portuguese science
The impact of the Portuguese Jesuits on science in Portugal is well documented. They were not only converts, but also important influencers. In fact, some researchers attribute much of the development of Portuguese science to the influence of Jesuit missionaries. Some other notable examples are Jose de Anchieta and the Society of Jesus. The former was a Portuguese Jesuit who arrived in Brazil in 1553 and converted more than a million indigenous people to Catholicism. In addition, he organized religious plays, compiled the first grammar of the Tupi language, and wrote letters on the native customs and diseases.
This thesis is the first study to examine the influence of the Portuguese Jesuits on science. The Third Order of St. Francis, a Portuguese religious order, was located in Braga until the mid-seventeenth century. Later, they shifted to Sao Paulo. By 1822, the Portuguese Jesuits had spread throughout the Portuguese empire. But their influence on Portuguese science was far-reaching.
A second important study focuses on the scholarly impact of the Portuguese Jesuits on the scientific community. The study provides context for the religious orders in Lisbon. It examines the extent of the Jesuit influence by studying historical and primary sources. Real books were chosen as the primary source because they are a more comprehensive record of reading practices than manuscripts. And the study is accompanied by a series of case studies, which reveal the influence of the Portuguese Jesuits on Portuguese science.
Another major example of the Jesuits' influence on Portuguese science is the University of Coimbra. The University of Coimbra was founded by the Jesuits in 1290. In 1759, the Portuguese Jesuits were banned from Portugal, but they didn't have to stay. They continued to influence science, and eventually founded a "college" in the city of Coimbra. The original building was a residence for the Jesuits who were studying at the University of Coimbra. The school continued to function until the 1960s.
Portuguese Jesuits' emigration to Brazil
In the nineteenth century, Portugal was divided into two kingdoms, a Catholic and a Protestant. The Portuguese Jesuits began their emigration to Brazil in the fifteenth century. The Portuguese Jesuits established the Anchieta College in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The Jesuits were able to establish a school that was known as the Anchietan Conferences, gathering the most influential figures in Brazil's intellectual and political life. The Jesuits later used their missionary and economic expertise to settle in Rio de Janeiro, a city that is still the capital today.
The first Jesuit mission to Brazil took place in 1549 under the leadership of Father Manuel da Nobrega during the first governor-generalship of Tome de Souza in Bahia. This was a time of religious turmoil in the country, and Jesuits were not allowed to return to their previous locations. The Portuguese Jesuits, however, continued to support the Catholic immigrants who had migrated from the Sao Leopoldo colonies.
The third moment represents the emergence of critical perspectives about the Jesuits' activities in Brazil. This period of time is marked by new methodologies influenced by European economic and social history. This intellectual turn has led to a surge in non-Jesuit scholarship on the Society of Jesus in Brazil, with the emphasis placed on the colonial period. The Jesuits were portrayed as a crucial influence in contemporary debates regarding indigenous policies, especially in the context of Brazilian politics.
The work of Jesuit Serafim Leite was monumental in scope and recognition from the IHGB. The Jesuits played an important role in the formation of Brazil, mediated with the colonizers and produced the linguistic and literary production that helped build the country. Leite's work had a scientific slant and influenced historical historiography until the 1960s.