High-Tech Business & Finance
The theory of innovation systems and the hierarchy of capital structures can help us understand the nature of high-tech financing. Under the hierarchy theory, companies prefer to raise funds from their own funds rather than turn to debt sources to finance their growth. Companies that lack their own funds turn to debt sources in order to obtain capital and attract new owners through shares or direct investments. The issue of debt to fund growth may result in increased business risk or less financial flexibility for high-tech companies.
Impact of venture capital on high-tech companies
The growth of strategic emerging industries, such as high-tech, requires the assistance of venture capital. This financial support facilitates the development of new companies and industries, ensuring continued economic growth and attracting talent to these sectors. The key characteristics of high-tech industries include their difficult access to conventional financing sources. In addition, because of their enormous potential for growth and income, these industries are prone to high risk. Therefore, venture capital has become an essential incubator for these companies, particularly in Western countries.
To measure the impact of venture capital on high-tech industries, a series of data has been collected. First, the value-added of high-tech industries is measured. Second, the amount of venture capital disbursed is analyzed. These two indicators are closely related to each other. For instance, in the U.S., the average profit cycle for venture capital in the biomedicine industry was seven to ten years. Third, this type of investment produced a high-risk but high-reward investment, with an average annual rate of 17% compared to traditional financial markets. Moreover, these two factors have formed a symbiotic relationship.
Using these three data, the authors find that national venture capital is more likely to drive innovation. Because of its greater innovation orientation and longer investment cycle, it has a positive impact on innovation performance. Foreign and private venture capital, on the other hand, have no significant impact on innovation performance. As such, it is important to note that the results of the research are compatible with the economic transformation of national economies. In addition, the research reveals the role of venture capital institutions in incubating new ideas, a valuable reference for startups.
Moving venture capital to regions with high innovative potential is a step towards improving the economy of U.S. cities. This trend strengthens the U.S. economy, introduces greater demographic diversity to the innovation ecosystem, and can reverse the trend of "brain drain" from the heartland to the coasts. In addition, new federal initiatives, such as the Small Business Innovation Research program, are designed to encourage the formation of regional venture and loan funding operations. By attracting innovative companies, SBIR awards signal the potential for commercialization and attract follow-up investment.
This pandemic has accelerated the shift toward later-stage deals. While this trend had already been underway, it has become more pronounced in recent years. The total value of technology deals in the first quarter of 2021 grew 165% year-over-year, indicating that China is a major source of venture capital. However, this trend is likely to continue. The study also demonstrates that China's high-tech industry has not yet formed a coordinated interaction and feedback mechanisms with venture capital.
A common start-up deal involves a $3 million investment and a 40% preferred equity ownership position. However, recent valuations have been much higher, and investors' downside protections are often negligible. Aside from the upside potential, the preferred equity investment provides protection for venture capitalists against loss. Moreover, venture capitalists are usually granted a liquidation preference, a type of equity ownership that simulates debt and provides them with first claim on the company's assets. However, these investors often include disproportional voting rights.
Impact of venture capital on bank lending to big techs
There are several advantages of venture capital and big techs working together. Venture capital helps entrepreneurs raise funds, while big techs provide the customer interface. The latter also allows the bank to manage the loan with ease thanks to advanced data analytics. In addition, these companies can scale rapidly at a low cost, and they can directly interface with clients. Such partnerships can benefit both banks and big techs. This article will discuss these advantages and disadvantages.
The cost of lending is closely tied to the processing of big data and the enforcement of loan repayments. To ensure that big techs are making the right lending decisions, banks must collect data and develop close relationships with borrowers. They also need to monitor borrowers and limit their losses through collateral and other means. Using big data, big techs can reduce their costs while promoting financial inclusion and economic activity.
While big techs have increased the amount of money they receive from venture capital, they are still limited in their ability to fund themselves through retail deposits. While some countries allow remote online bank accounts, two Chinese big tech banks rely on certificates of deposit and interbank lending to meet their financing needs. These banks have also started to issue'smart deposits' that pay higher interest rates than traditional time deposits.
Despite the benefits of venture capital and big techs' streamlined processes, the regulated financial sector is unlikely to be upset by big techs anytime soon. While the big techs can combine data with financial service providers, they lack the credit history necessary for complex underwriting decisions. This is especially true of large tech companies, which may not be as mature and trusting as banks. Nevertheless, the impact of venture capital on bank lending to big techs cannot be ignored.
The emergence of big techs in the financial sector raises competition concerns, and the entry of big techs may make financial services less efficient and less accessible to the poor. Regulators need to ensure that banks and big techs operate on a level playing field. In addition to the competition between banks and big techs, they must consider the size of the incumbents' customer base and access to information. The introduction of big techs into the financial sector poses complex trade-offs between financial stability and competition.
While the rapid structural change introduced by big techs has facilitated the rapid growth of technology firms, the risks to the financial system are considerable. A sudden withdrawal of capital could cause massive losses for these companies. The risk of a big tech crashing is also significant, but the bank needs to make sure it doesn't lose money. If it doesn't, the shock would quickly propagate to the banking system.
Impact of bank lending to big techs
The growth of big tech companies is a significant source of competition and collaboration for traditional financial institutions. These companies offer a range of services, from e-commerce and social media to mobile phone hardware and software, ride-hailing services, and telecommunications. As their market capitalisations have surpassed those of banks, they have a substantial potential impact on the economy. Yet, they are limited in their ability to access retail deposits, limiting their ability to establish a bank account.
While banks can be more selective in their lending practices, big techs can often gain an advantage over traditional financial institutions. They can serve unbanked households and firms and tap relevant information through digital platforms. For example, Ant Financial claims to analyze 1,000 data series for every loan applicant. Big techs can also enforce repayment by making themselves senior. However, these concerns are not the only drawbacks of bank lending to big techs.
Traditional financial institutions can reduce the costs associated with monitoring borrowers and lending by using the information they collect to assess the riskiness of borrowers. They can also reduce the need for collateral, improve financial inclusion, and generate economic activity. The impact of bank lending to big techs is likely to be substantial. Ultimately, big techs can help improve the efficiency of financial services and promote economic activity. The question is: Can banks regulate big techs?
The answer to this question lies in the fact that these firms can acquire a lot of data on individuals. Hence, the financial system must ensure the security of individuals' personal information. In the meantime, it must ensure that big tech firms don't acquire pricing power. They will be forced to move to platforms. As a result, the impact of bank lending to big techs on banks' balance sheets will be profound.
While big tech companies have become increasingly sophisticated, they have yet to achieve the scale of success that they have enjoyed before. As their DNA feedback loops and customer-centric cultures mature, they are increasingly turning their attention to the finance industry. Google Pay and Facebook Money both use payment services to facilitate secure transactions and make it possible for users of social media platforms to send money to one another. These payments generate data on the network of fund senders and recipients. These data can be leveraged to improve existing services and to develop new ones.
In addition to the aforementioned benefits of competition, big techs' entry into financial services also raises many competition and privacy concerns. Banks need to respond to this new competition by ensuring that their lending practices are on an equal footing with big techs. Moreover, these newcomers can bring about efficiency gains in the financial sector and promote financial inclusion. To respond to the emerging threat posed by these newcomers, public policy must be focused on balancing the competing interests of competition and financial stability.