French Literature is the literature written in the language of France. Authors of French literature are typically native speakers of the language. However, literature written by people living in France or those whose mother tongue is French can also be deemed French literature. This article will discuss the works of Proust, Zola, and Marcel Pagnol. Using the terms "French literature" will help you distinguish between the different styles of literature.
Les uvres d'Amadis de Gaul
In the 14th century, the first three books of the Amadis de Gaula series were published. The fourth, by Garci Rodriguez de Montalvo, was published after the first three, but is somewhat dull and solemn. Although inspired by knights-errant from the 13th and 15th centuries, the first three books of the Amadis series were lively and colorful, with brief dialogs, and a strong moral message. The series was satirized in Don Quixote, a classic of Spanish literature.
Les uvres d'Amadés de Gaula was published in the first half of the fourteenth century. The first version of this novel is from the year 1508, but scholars agree that the first manuscripts were written in Portuguese. The Spanish and Portuguese versions were translated into French by Nicolas de Herberay des Essarts. The Amadis de Gaula tales were one of the most popular chivalric romances of the 16th century.
Amadis was known primarily through French translations. In England, the cycle was called Amadis de Gaule. The French version had 24 books, which was not always accurate, and the book numbers do not correspond to Spanish book divisions. The French cycle also carries many ladies, such as princesses, aristocratic lords, and knights in need.
Les oeuvres de Marcel Pagnol
One of the most influential authors in French literature is Marcel Pagnol, whose works have been adapted into films and received international acclaim. His most famous novels, Manon des Sources and Marchands de Gloire, were made into films starring Yves Montand and Gerard Depardieu. Although not directly autobiographical, Marcel Pagnol's writing is rich in lyrical imagery and marseillaise idiom. His characters are simple, innocent, and naive, yet they have a sense of metaphysical horror.
The book opens with an introduction by Franz-Olivier Giesbert, a journalist and member of the Prix Renaudot jury since 1998. He offers a personal preface on the work of Marcel Pagnol. In May 2017, he was named editorial director of La Provence. The new edition makes Pagnol's manuscripts widely available to scholars and the general public.
Originally an actor, Pagnol was a playwright, screenwriter, and film director. In addition to writing novels, he also created screenplays and founded film studios in Marseille, where he worked with the best actors of his time. In 1946, he was elected to the prestigious Academie francaise. In 1956, he shifted away from the stage and cinema to focus on writing novels.
The well-known Giono tale was adapted by Pagnol into a taut drama. His plays elaborated the myths surrounding "le coeur meridonale" and the redemptive power of a woman. This version of the play, The Well-Digger's Daughter, starred a superb repertory company of the music halls of Marseille. It was directed by Daniel Auteuil and received mostly positive reviews.
Les oeuvres de Zola
Les oeuvres de Zola in French literature are a collection of essays by noted scholars on the author. These essays focus on Zola's early life and early career. They discuss the impact of his early years, which were marked by poverty. He later wrote about the working class and urban poverty. His themes also included class consciousness, class relations, and the roles of sexuality and gender in society. In addition to exploring the social issues of the day, Zola's writings show how ordinary people live within a changing society.
The impact of Zola's writings cannot be overstated. His novels have influenced the New Novel, the existentialist novel, and muckrakers. His novels combine visuality and movement to tell a story, and his works have been adapted into film and television. For example, Jean Renoir adapted La Bete humaine in 1938 and Claude Berri adapted Germinal in 1993.
In his later years, Zola became acquainted with Victor Hugo, Alfred de Musset, Dante, and William Shakespeare. He also embraced contemporary scientific theories, including Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, which argued that the best-adapted species would survive and pass along their traits. In his short stories, Zola tended to group his works into series, such as "Les Pros and Cons," which were published before he wrote La Fortune des Rougon.
Les oeuvres de Proust
Compared to other major novels in the genre, "A la recherche du temps perdu" is comparable to other symbolic and creative autobiographies. Proust was influenced by writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Viscount de Chateaubriand, who published works that parallel his own themes. The novel is still considered one of the greatest French novels of all time. However, its release is delayed by World War I, which ended in 1918.
The work's literary influence can be seen in the works of Sansom and Graham. In "The Inmost Leaf," they consider Proust's writings as an expression of his own worldview. "A la recherche du temps perdu" is also considered a masterpiece of French literature. In 1936, it was originally meant to be a thesis project at the Sorbonne, where Proust was a student. But Proust has long been considered one of the greatest French writers of the twentieth century. Although the literary criticism that surrounds his works has focused on his narrative technique, it is still important to note that the psychological content is a prominent feature of this work.
Proust was born on 10 July 1871 in the Paris Borough of Auteuil, part of the 16th arrondissement. His early years coincided with the suppression of the Paris Commune and the consolidation of the French Third Republic. His novel, "A la recherche," was published after his death, and three parts of "Albertine disparue" were published after his death. This novel remains one of the most popular in the genre.
Les oeuvres de Rimbaud
The poet Arthur Rimbaud's work is often associated with the 19th century. In the 1870s, Rimbaud's original verses in French began to improve rapidly. But his life was not all smooth sailing. He frequently ran away from home and may have briefly joined the Paris Commune. During this period, Rimbaud also became an anarchist. He became increasingly discontented with his situation, consuming more alcohol and experimenting with anarchist politics. His long hair and shabby dress caused him to shock the local bourgeoisie. In spite of his personal turmoil, he managed to maintain correspondence with Izambard and Paul Demeny. In his letters, Rimbaud aimed to communicate his despair to readers through derangement of the senses.
"Le bateau ivre" is a 100-line poem by Rimbaud. In this poem, a boat escapes from human society and is attacked by "Redskins". In the course of its journey, the boat realizes that its voyage is being guided by a "poem of the sea." As a result, it begins to experience visions of the sea and wishes to sink.
"Les Illuminations" is Rimbaud's most influential work. It is his most technically sophisticated poem, but still maintains a clear thematic continuity with his earlier verses. It also uses bizarre terminology to explore new poetic structures and the creative power of punctuation. Its ending is tragic. Les Illuminations contains a number of poems that focus on children's imaginative experiences, but also explore the idea of the broken family.
Les oeuvres de Louis-Ferdinand Celine
One of the most influential French writers of the twentieth century, Louis-Ferdinand Celine (born May 27, 1894 in Courbevoie, near Paris) developed a highly personal style that he cultivated throughout his life. He served in the Great War, in which he was severely wounded, and went on to become a medical doctor. His first novel was published in 1932. He later wrote anti-Semitic pamphlets and collaborated with Nazi Germany. Eventually, Celine was declared a national disgrace by the French government and fled to Denmark.
His novels are written in the first person and heavily autobiographical. Voyage chronicles his experiences in World War I, colonial Africa, capitalist America, and the poor suburbs of Paris. He also writes about his childhood in his novel Mort a credit. Guignol's Band is based on his time in London, and Feerie pour autre fois is loosely based on his experience in Denmark.
His letters are also part of his legacy, and the correspondence between Celine and his publishers sheds light on his ideas and life. Celine lived abroad for the first time when he was thirteen. After writing his last novel, he wrote thousands of letters to his publisher, revealing his inner life. The letters contradict the persona he projected to the public. In addition, Lettres was published in the prestigious Bibliotheque de la Pleiade, and the resulting publication was a literary milestone for the French nation.