True Accounts of White Collar Crime
The U.S. Department of Justice has published a report entitled "White Collar Crime Report to the Public." This report discusses several aspects of white-collar crime. This article discusses financial fraud, Antitrust violations, and illegal price fixing. In addition to the report, there are many other books and articles on this topic. One of the best resources for this subject is the U.S. Department of Justice's White Collar Crime Report to the Public.
Illegal price fixing is a white-collar crime
Unlawful price fixing occurs when competitors conspire to fix their prices in order to increase their profits per item. This crime takes two different forms: vertical and horizontal. Vertical price fixing involves agreements between manufacturers to undercut one another. Federal prosecutors prosecute both types. The former is the more common form, while horizontal price fixing involves collusion between competitors. The FTC has strict rules regarding this crime.
Antitrust agents often come across evidence of illegal price-fixing activities as they investigate other conduct, such as money laundering, tax violations, and public corruption. If the evidence reveals that price-fixing took place, government agents may pursue prosecutions, resulting in large fines, prison sentences, and restitution for victims. A federal court can impose steep penalties for violators of the Sherman Act.
In the DaVita case, the US government's Antitrust Division successfully convicted a former CEO of a large medical equipment company for collaborating with competitors to suppress competition. However, the DOJ was only able to obtain a guilty verdict because the defendants obstructed justice. The case is pending, and the DOJ will likely try many defendants again.
Although collusion to set a product's price is illegal, the agreement to restrict production of that product is equally illegal. This is because limiting supply forces a product to sell at a higher price. In the case of lubricants, for example, the FTC challenged an agreement among competing oil importers in Puerto Rico to restrict the supply of these lubricants. The competitors cited an environmental deposit fee as the justification for their conspiracy, warning that if the agreement was not implemented, the lubricant shortage would cause higher prices. The conspiracy between the importers of these lubricants violated antitrust law and also had no countervailing efficiencies.
A more serious case of illegal price fixing involves colluding with another company to artificially raise prices. The aim is to drive out the competition by artificially raising the price of a product. Another example of a white-collar crime involves the collusion of pharmaceutical companies with price-fixing agents. In this case, the defendants are corporations in all sizes and types of businesses.
Antitrust laws protect the marketplace and preserve competition. Competition helps consumers save money and encourage companies to develop better products. Antitrust laws are an important part of our society and a violation of antitrust laws can hurt the economy. There are several laws that govern this activity. These include the Clayton Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act. This article will discuss some of the laws that govern it. The goal of antitrust laws is to keep prices low for consumers and boost the economy.
"White-collar crime" is a term coined by Edwin Sutherland after the Whitney Airplane Disaster to describe the wrongdoing of respectable and wealthy individuals. The rise and fall of the economy has delivered new iterations of financial scams, fraud, and rapacious self-dealing, and the term has become a catchphrase for such crimes. This aptly describes the fact that countless white-collar criminals were not executives, but ordinary people who were involved in financial crime.
The Department's Fraud Section works to investigate and prosecute crimes involving money laundering, credit card fraud, and financial crimes against the American public. The Fraud Section specializes in the investigation of complex white-collar crime and fraud involving the financial industry, ranging from financial institutions to governments. It has extensive experience in handling complex litigation and investigative procedures related to complex white-collar crime, and has a unique role in developing Department policy.
White-collar crime is a collection of non-violent crimes committed by business and government professionals. It can include antitrust violations, computer and Internet fraud, healthcare fraud, counterfeiting, and intellectual property theft/piracy. It may also include health care fraud, cybercrime, insider trading, and other types of financial crime. But the definition of white-collar crime is broad and includes crimes involving both government and business organizations.
The authors report that white-collar offenders often have multiple arrests and convictions. In a sample of white-collar offenders, nearly half had at least one arrest. However, only about a third of these were strictly convicted of white-collar crimes. Furthermore, repeat offenders often display violent tendencies and have a history of committing multiple offenses.
Several decades ago, the United States Justice Department issued a book called True Accounts of White Collar Crime: The Rise of American Corporations. Sutherland believed that the majority of these criminals were lower-class and economically disadvantaged, and that those of the upper class were not generally criminal. White-collar criminality includes misinterpretation of financial statements of corporations, manipulation of the stock market, bribery of public officials, deceptive advertising, dishonest bankruptcies, and price-fixing. Sutherland quotes Chicago gangster Al Capone as calling these crimes "legitimate rackets".
The report analyzed white-collar crime convictions in federal judicial districts. In February, the Eastern District of Missouri (St. Louis) ranked number three, while the Western District of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City) ranked second. In both years, the total number of white-collar crimes convicted in each of the federal judicial districts increased by an average of 32%.