Computing Internet Digital Media in Italian
The digital transition is finally becoming apparent in the Italian media system. Digital-born players have begun to reach the top positions of rankings, new podcast companies have popped up, and news kiosks have completely changed their operations. This study investigates the role of public policy initiatives to encourage digital media usage among the Italian population. A multiethnic sample was used in this study, and the results suggest that digital-born players are more likely to make purchases online.
Public policy initiatives
This article examines the impacts of public policy initiatives in Italian society in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The outbreak affected Italy to a great extent, presenting significant health, social, and economic challenges. We classified policy interventions in this context according to a comparative framework, and we examine their impact on health. During the outbreak, the Italian government implemented a large number of homogenous interventions, resulting in several policy initiatives.
The report found that the volume of disinformation in Italy peaked in the days before the March 2018 elections. The disinformation came in the form of fake news, manipulated images, and fabricated opinion polls. Bot activity was detected in the days before the vote. The Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism compared fake news websites in Italy to mainstream news outlets and found that the fake news sites had less audience and spent less time on average than mainstream media outlets.
After the lockdown, most businesses were still open, but non-essential activities were shut down. However, the Italian government chose to adopt a Bluetooth-based app for monitoring public health. The app, dubbed IMMUNI, was released in four pilot regions on 8th June 2020. Among other initiatives, drones have been used to support public health initiatives, but were short-lived due to lack of guidelines. Meanwhile, robots are being used for telepresence and for remote communication between hospitalised patients and their families.
The Italian government implemented a range of measures that aim to balance public health and economic concerns. The Italian government targeted early measures in the most affected regions, but the policy interventions were expanded to all regions on 9th March 2020. On 4th May 2020, a national exit strategy plan began to ease the containment measures. The Italian government is committed to continuing these efforts. However, there are many obstacles that remain.
Internet self-efficacy scale
Although various self-efficacy instruments have been used in academic and other settings, no measure specific to the online environment exists. In this article, we will provide a brief history of the Internet self-efficacy scale, discuss its development and validation, and provide some practical considerations for future research. It is important to note that self-efficacy measures can be used to determine individual levels of competency and efficacy, not just the overall measure.
The Internet self-efficacy scale is a pivotal construct that can help researchers understand the various activities performed online. While previous research has emphasized the importance of prior experience, a recent study suggested that two years of experience could be necessary to achieve a sufficient level of self-efficacy. Moreover, previous studies have revealed that new users of the internet experience more often encountered problems online and were less satisfied with their skills than veteran internet users. Hence, the present study recommended a three-factor internet self-efficacy scale (ISS) for assessing internet use.
Further, the internet self-efficacy scale did not seem to be related to other theoretically-difficult concepts, such as life hassles or depression. While it was positively correlated with prior Internet use, it was negatively related with other measures of psychological well-being, such as perceived social support and loneliness. However, the scale reflected a positive outlook on life, and the ability to cope with life stress.
In order to test the self-efficacy theory, researchers should investigate the relationship between Internet use and Internet self-efficacy. The relationship between the two is complicated, but the results suggest that self-efficacy does matter. For example, a negative observation of a similar individual's failure could have a profound effect on a person's Internet self-efficacy. In the long run, peer-tutoring is likely to lead to increased internet self-efficacy.
Impact of COVID-19 epidemic on digital media usage
The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on Italian families' psychosocial functioning and attitudes toward computing and the use of digital media is still under investigation. One study examined the impact of an eight-week quarantine in Italy, one of the worst hit European countries during the first wave. The findings highlight the need for further research to identify the effect of this disease on other populations. A further study is needed to determine the effect on children and adults in other countries.
While the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on Italian computing and digital media usage is still unknown, the findings have significant implications. The COVID-19 epidemic is the first pandemic in the Western world to be accompanied by a nationwide lockdown, which shifted the public's health priorities. As a result, Italian public health authorities encouraged the public to limit their use of healthcare services. In addition, Italian society is transitioning from a predominantly print-based culture to a digital medium. However, this process can be slowed down or prevented by effective moderation.
A recent study has shown that the use of smartphones increased in Italian children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase may be a result of the epidemic's impact on different socio-economic conditions and school settings in Italy. The study also found a significant increase in daily smartphone usage among children and adolescents. The increased use may be attributed to the multifaceted roles children and adolescents performed with their smartphones, which included communication, information, and entertainment.
The study used an anonymous and self-report questionnaire to collect data on the effects of the epidemic. It was conducted during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was designed in Google Forms and explained to children and teachers. The questionnaires were sent to children in primary school and older, and to children in Sicily. The forms were also sent to schools in northern Italy.
Multiethnic composition of sample
The racial and ethnic composition of the US population has changed a lot in recent years. While the number of people using the internet has increased, it has also changed dramatically in how people live. Some studies have found that internet use is associated with higher social capital, wage premiums, and social networks. Moreover, people without internet access may reflect existing social inequalities by enlarging or re-creating them. For instance, disadvantaged minorities may not have access to computers due to their concentration in occupations that do not allow access to them. Therefore, the sample of Italians using computing Internet digital media included a multiethnic composition.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of computing Internet digital media in Italian. The study sample consisted of 659 Italian university students who voluntarily provided their data. The data were analyzed using confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that items 4 and 7 were insufficiently predictive of Internet users' attitudes. However, the final 18 items of the IAT were covered by a two-factor model, which demonstrated good psychometric properties. Further, the study showed that the translated version of the IAT satisfied criteria for convergent validity and discrimination.
In addition, the Italian version of the ISS showed high scale reliability. The test's reliability was indicated by Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega values. The ISS Italian version also showed high reliability and ecological validity, with high internal consistency for both the total score and each sub-scale. Overall, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the Italian version of the Internet Self-Efficacy Scale.
The psychometric properties of the Italian BFAS also confirmed the unidimensionality of the construct. In addition, the Italian BFAS exhibited good internal reliability and internal consistency. These results are particularly useful for future research in Italy as it is the first time that this scale has been validated in an Italian language. In the future, research in Italy can use the Italian version of the BFAS to examine the addictive potential of internet usage.
The Italian BFAS was translated by two native Italian speakers. Two native English translators back-translated the Italian items and tested them on fifteen participants from different age groups and educational levels. The results were good and the Cronbach's alpha was high (.94). The test's order was also randomized, which avoided any effect from sequence. After this, the Italian version was administered to 3724 participants through dedicated messages.